Intellectual Property Rights
Intellectual property is defined as the human intellect product, which includes inventions, concepts, trademarks, songs, industrial models, names, literature, brands, and much more. Intellectual Property Rights are no different from any other property right.

They let their owner benefit entirely from his/her product, which was the idea initially that crystallized and developed. They even allow their customers to prevent any other person from dealing, using, or tampering with the product without permission. They also have the right to sue legally and force them to compensate for any damage.

What to know about the history of Intellectual Property Rights?

This is not something new. It has been said that the right initially started in the Renaissance era in North Italy. In the year 1474, a law was issued in Venice stating the protection of patents that granted an exclusive right for the owner.

The thing dates back to 1440 A.D. when the inventor Johannes Gutenberg invented a printing press with moveable/replaceable metal or wooden letters. Later in the 19th century, most countries felt the necessity of laying down the laws regulating Intellectual Property Rights.

Two conventions stating the basis for the IPR system were signed; Artistic Works (1886) and the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (1883).

Protection of IPR

The protection of IPR allows the owner of the brand, copyright holder, innovator, and patent holder to benefit from their labor, investment, and work, which doesn’t mean monopoly of the intellect.

These rights are set in the International Declaration of Human Rights, which offers rights to benefit from protecting the physical and moral interests coming from the work of a right holder.

Difference between Counterfeiting and Forgery

1-Forgery trademark means a transfer entirely identical from the unique brand or transfer of the main parts making the forged one just like the original brand.

2-Counterfeiting trademark means making a brand just like the original brand in a way that might make the public confused in connection with the source of goods that has a brand in question.

Intellectual property is referred to as mind creation: artistic and literary works, inventions, names, symbols, models, pictures, and industrial designs.

A property is divided into two categories:

Copyright comprises artistic and literary works that include poems, novels, films, plays, cartoons, musicals, photographs, statues, paintings, and architectural designs.

Industrial Property that includes: trademarks, patents (inventions), models, industrial designs, and geographical indications of the source.

Related Rights is a term used in copyright law, which has the right to performers while performing, producers in their recording, broadcasting organizations in the television programs they air, and radio.

How can Trademark be defined?

It is defined as a sign that makes the services or goods individual and distinguishes them from other competitors. A trademark should be distinctive and not illegal, deceptive, or immoral to come under the law’s protection.

What is an Industrial Model or Design?

It is considered the ergonomics and aesthetics of any product, which comprises three-dimensional elements, like creating the shape of the product, or two-dimensional ones, like patterns, graphics, and colors.

What is a Geographical Indication?

It is considered as a notice that states a given product originating in a given geographical area.

How can Trade Name be defined?

A business or trade name is the one that uniquely distinguishes one business from another.

What is a Patent?

It is a right given by law to an assignee or inventor to keep others away from benefiting commercially from their patented invention without permission, for a limited period in exchange for detailed public disclosure of the patented invention.

What is a Trade Secret?

It is the commercial value information comprising sales and production operations that is not known to people. The trade secret owner must take specific measures to keep the confidentiality maintained.

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What is a Copyright?

It is just like Intellectual Property Rights that protect the work of the human intellect. Its domain is artistic and literary works, which can be anything from musicals, writings, sculptures, fine arts, and paintings, and work based on technology like electronic databases and computer programs.

How can Integrated Circuit be defined?

It is a product, in its intermediate or final form, where the elements, or at least one of the active elements, and whereby the interconnections are formed integrally in or on a piece of material, intended to perform the electronic function.

What is Unfair Competition?

It is the type of competition contrary to honest practices in commercial or industrial matters.

How can Related Right be defined?

Neighboring or Related Rights are the ones that, in most respects, resemble copyright. The purpose of this right is to protect certain individuals’ legal interests, namely producers, performers, and broadcasters, and to help them deliver a message to the public.

Why do countries care for IPR and seek to protect and promote it?

1-If the innovations are protected legally; it will encourage safe spending on others.
2-In all the IPR domains, innovations lead to advancement and human progress.
3-Protecting and caring for Intellectual Property Rights contributes to achieving social and economic development.

What is Unfair Competition?

It is considered as any type of competition contrary to actual practices in commercial or industrial matters.

Counterfeiting and Forgery Techniques

Technology plays a major role in making counterfeit products as the original ones, making it difficult to distinguish between them as per the following:

1-Copying packaging or containers of the original ones and placing counterfeit in them.
2-Fixing the adhesive tape made for original products on counterfeit ones to deceive and mislead the customer.
3-Removing the expiry date from the expired products and rewriting a new date that extends the expiry.

The techniques of both of them differ entirely depending on the type and nature of the product, facilities in place, and perpetrator’s tools and techniques. Its techniques are different and aim to copy the original product.